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Saturday, 31 August 2013

MOST IMPORTANT WORKS OF ART - Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445[1] – May 17, 1510)

Primavera, The Allegory of Spring c. 1482. 
Nature, such an important presence in Renaissance art, is celebrated in Primavera with a profusion of light and colour. This painting is among the most mysterious in all the history of art, and scholars have long tried to unlock its arcane secrets. Even after the various personages have been identified, the overall meaning still remains uncertain. The expression of a culture imbued with symbolic and allegorical allusions like that of the 15th century, the painting lends itself to the most varied hypotheses for interpretation.

The title, The Allegory of Spring, by which the work has been known for some time, is based on Vasari's description on Venus: "Venus, whom the Graces are covering with flowers, as a symbol of spring." The subject of this painting is difficult to interpret. Scholars have struggled for decades to elaborate theories to explain every detail of the picture, but no one has yet succeeded in revealing its meaning completely.

Moreover, it is not even certain exactly who commissioned the work, but the person who ordered the painting from Botticelli, had to have been a member of the powerful Medici family. The presence of the Primavera in their villa at Castello has in the past led historians to conclude that the patron was Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, the cousin of Lorenzo the Magnificent, and that the work was painted before Botticelli went to Rome. As Vasari writes: "In various homes throughout the city, he [Botticelli] himself painted tondi and numerous female nudes. Two of these paintings are still at Castello, Duke Cosimo's villa: one depicts the Birth of Venus, and those breezes and winds which blew her and her Cupids to land; and the second is another Venus, the symbol of Spring, being adorned with flowers by the Graces. In both paintings Sandro expressed himself with grace" (Vasari 225.)

Now, the tendency is to think that Primavera was commissioned by Lorenzo the Magnificent for the wedding if his cousin Lorenzo to Semiramide Appiani, and thus that it was painted around 1482.

In this case, the recently offered interpretation, which holds that a Latin text by Martianus Capella entitled De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae contains a description of the subject represented here, is in line with the occasion which seems to have generated the painting. This late Roman in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, as it was studied in schools of rhetoric.

The search for the beautiful as a value in itself, that is produced by art, places Botticelli on a different plane from his contemporaries Leonardo (1452 – 1519), Michelangelo (1475 – 1564), and Raphael (1483 – 1520), who considered art to be a means of investigation and knowledge of nature and history. Botticelli - in this sense he belongs more to the 15th century than the 16th - aims in his work at elaborating a philosophy which unites art, thought, and poetry. This is the source of the true challenge in interpreting some of his paintings, as is the case with Primavera.

The panel should be read form right to left. At first look at it, it allows us to approach the 9 figures present in the scene, who appear in a perfect harmony but not connected with each other. Thus, one can speak of a harmony of single figures. Zephyrus, the wind of spring, grabs a nude woman clad only in thin veils - the nymph Chloris - and weds her: flowers stream out of the mouth of the impregnated goddess. Next to her is the goddess Flora wearing a flowered dress and carrying flowers, which she scatters as she walks. In center a standing figure makes a gesturer of benediction: she is the goddess Venus who, with her head tilted slightly to one side, looks out of the picture, with Cupid flying above her about to shoot an arrow at one of the dancers in the trio below. On the left, the dancing group of women wearing veiled garments is easily identified as the three Graces. On the far left Mercury, covered only by a red chlamys, lifts his caduceus toward the top of the trees to dispel the clouds.

The wood nymph Chloris seized and impregnated by the west wind Zephyrus, the wind of spring, is transformed into a goddess Flora, the bearer of spring.  In a passage from Ovid's Fasti, Chloris states: "I was Chloris, who am now called Flora." Given the learned and refined sphere in which Botticelli moved, it is highly probable that this is the literary source for the representation.
The Roman statue of Pomona (The goddess of fruit and fruitfulness, the wife of Vertumnus, the god of orchards) Florence, Ufizi, is a likely model of reference for the figure of Flora. The autumn fruit, gathered in a fold of her dress, is here substituted by spring flowers. 
Sandro Botticelli. Allegory of Spring. Detail of Zephyrus and Chloris.

Sandro Botticelli. Allegory of Spring. Detail of Flora.
Sandro Botticelli. Allegory of Spring. Detail of  Mercury.
Sandro Botticelli. Allegory of Spring. Detail of Venus-Humanitas and Cupid.

Detail of the Three Graces

The scene takes place in a thick woods; a blue-gray light filters through from the back, allowing us to glimpse a veiled panorama on the far edge of the horizon. A meadow embroidered with a profusion of flowers forms the soft carpet on which the figures move.



   

Most Important Works of Art - Albrecht Dürer (1471 - 1528)

By ALEXANDRA A.  JOPP




Albrecht Dürer has been acclaimed as the greatest German artist. His influence has been profound, not only on his contemporaries and followers in the 16th century but also right down to the present day. Primarily known for his prints, engravings, and woodcuts , he was also an accomplished painter, he was the son of a goldsmith from Hungary who had trained in the Netherlands and settled in Nuremberg, where Albrecht was born. 

Early indications of his genius are evident in a charming and extremely competent self-portrait at age of 13 (1484) executed in the challenging medium of silverpoint. This was first of a series of self-portraits, in drawings and in paint, that he produced over the course of his life, which provide an invaluable insight into his character and personality, as well as his skill. The drawings are intimate insight into Durer's self-awareness, not intended for th public but for private viewing, while the paintings are more self-conscious - they depict Durer as he wished to be seen.


Albrecht Dürer. Self-Portrait with a Landscape, 1498. 

On his return home the following year, he made watercolor paintings of the landscape, which are very relevant to the Self-Portrait with a Landscape, 1498. The next ten years were incredibly productive and established his international reputation. During this period he painted the two remaining self-portraits:  Self-Portrait with a Landscape in 1498, when aged 26, and his last, Christ-like one in 1500 aged 29, by which time he was already famous and much sough after.


Albrecht Dürer. Self-portrait in a Fur-Collared Robe, 1500.


After completing his apprenticeship, Durer traveled for four years. He produced the first of his painting self-portraits in 1493, at the age of 23; probably in Strasbourg. H returned to Nuremberg in 1494, when he married. Later, in 1494, he made his first trip to Venice, where he encountered at first-hand the Italian Renaissance, which had a tremendous effect upon him an chis consequent development as an artist, and as a person. Most importantly for him, he encountered there a different attitude toward art and artists. In his native Germany, artists were still regarded - in the convention of Middle Ages - as craftsmen, within the rigid order of the Nuremberg guilds. In Italy he found a philosophical and intellectual approach to art, which accorded with his own aspirations. This is the crux of the changing status of the artists at this period.

Durer relished the social position accorded to artists in Italy and during his second visit to Venice he wrote in a letter of his reluctance to return to Nuremberg: "Here I am a lord, at home I am a parasite."


By their nature, self-portraits portray the artist trough his work: the artwork is a depiction of self, both by the image produced and the means by which the image is achieved: it shows what the artist can do and what he was like. This dual aspect is reflected in the inscription: I have thus painted myself, I was 26 years old. It is also a consummate piece of self-promotion. It epitomizes the aspirations of "Renaissance man" within the context of the changing the status of the artist. Durer regarded the calling of art as a noble one that was divinely inspired by God. This is how he wished to be seen: as an aristocratic young nobleman, posed in all his finery. 

Normally inscriptions serve to counter the illusion of a picture by drawing attention to the surface of the pairing. By placing it parallel to the window, it becomes part of the illusion. 






Albrecht Dürer (German, Nuremberg 1471 - 1528 Nuremberg)
The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve)
Albrecht Dürer (German, Nuremberg 1471 - 1528 Nuremberg)
The Fall of Man (Adam and Eve) - See more at: http://www.oberlin.edu/amam/Durer_Fall.htm#sthash.XT6AaLoP.dpuf
Durer was an outstanding painter, draftsman and writer, but it was his printmaking that spread his fame. He was the first artist to establish his own printing business, on a par with his painter's workshop, and he revolutionized the techniques of woodcut printing and engraving.
He was fascinated by the idea of perfect human form. His style in painting highly symmetrical. Adam and Eve are depicted in a Garden of Eden. Adam holds a branch of the tree of life from which Eve broken a branch. The painting closely resembles Michelangelo’s’ David and Botticelli’s Venus. The artist uses Latin inscriptions and the main composition is circles triangles and squares. Very symmetrical in form, Durer was a master of composition.
Another Durer's masterwork is Melencolia I, 1514. 

Melencolia I is a 1514 engraving by the German Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer.    



In this work, Durer used a burin (s fine steel tool) to etch his design onto a copper plate, achieving a significant degree of expressivity and detail of line, combined with an extraordinary depth of total range through detailed cross-hatching and tiny incisions that create a smooth transition of grey tones. The intricacy and drama of Durer's subject matter endowed the modest medium with a new authority. This engraving has become the quintessence of the Renaissance print, and its meaning has provoked much dispute. The winged figure in a meditative pose has been seen as a self-portrait of Durer in the grip of the first of the three types of melancholy, melancholia imaginativa. The magic square on the wall alludes to a possible motive for the artist’s melancholy – the death of his mother on 5 May 1514 – and various details refer to the four humorous, which since antiquity had been held responsible for a person’s individual disposition. At the time of the Renaissance, melancholy was associated with genius and creativity, and the engraving may be interpreted as a highly complex allegory of the struggles of the artist. 




Thursday, 29 August 2013

We all owe something to Kertész.

Mondrian's Eyeglasses and Pipe, 1926. André Kertész.
Hungarian born Andre Kertesz has been living in Paris less than a year when he visited the studio of the Dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Mondrian's Eyeglasses and Pipe is among a group of beautiful still lifes that the photographer took that day. Within the austere clarity of these simple geometric forms- common manufactured items that Mondrian used daily - Kertesz captured the essence of this master of abstraction, both his aspiration to order and his slight and human divergences from it. The insistent angularity of the stark white table is offset by the sculptural curves of the glasses, bowl, and pipe, curves that were rigorously excluded from Mondrian's art. Ever since Kertesz began photographing, in 1912, and throughout his long career, he sough the revelation of the found still life, of an abstract or resonating image discovered in the elliptical view. His signature practice of snaring and fixing these lyrical perceptions was facilitated by his later use of light, portable, hand cameras that enabled him to remain mobile and agile even when still lifes. His work had a gigantic influence on the photographers - contemporaries such as Brassaï and Cartier-Bresson; his composition amounts to nothing short of an authority of modernist photography. In Cartier-Bresson’s own words: “We all owe something to Kertész. ”

Brassai and Kertesz (right.)

André Kertész has two qualities that are essential for a great photographer: an insatiable curiosity about the world, about people, and about life, and a precise sense of form.
-Brassai


Robert Doisneau and André Kertész in Arles, France, 1975 © Wolfgang H. Wögerer
The moment always dictates in my work. Everybody can look, but they don’t necessarily see. I see a situation and I know that it’s right.
-André Kertész
The Fork, or La Fourchette (1928)

Everything that surrounds you can give you something. Last summer I stayed in my room most of the time and I began playing around with things. Years ago I was given a little primitive Polaroid camera and I didn’t like it–it was for snapshots. But one day I took it out. I had discovered, in the window of a shop, a little glass bust, and I was very moved because it resembled my wife–the shoulder and the neck were Elizabeth. For months and months I looked at the bust in the window and I finally bought it. The lady in the shop said, ‘It’s a beautiful bust, sir.’ ‘I know,’ I said. And I took it home, put it in my window, and began shooting and shooting with the Polaroid camera–in the morning, in the afternoon, in different lights. Something came out of this little incident, this little object. They made a book of all the pictures I took. It is dedicated to my wife. Look how the face of the bust is always changing: a shadow, which is the shadow of the curtain, then a passing cloud.
The sky and its reflection give it the expression. I didn’t arrange this thing–it was “there”. Photography cannot make nature more beautiful. Nature is the most beautiful thing in the world. You can show the beauty, illustrate it, but it is never the real beauty–very far from it. We don’t know how beautiful nature really is. We can only guess. I am always saying the best photographs are those I never took.
-André Kertész, Kertész on Kertész
André Kertész | The Blind Violinist, Abony, Hungary, 1921
The blind musician. Look at the expression on his face. It was absolutely fantastic. If he had been born in Berlin, London or Paris, he might have become a first-rate musician.

-André Kertész, Kertész on Kertész

Chagall, Marc. The Violinist 1911/14. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf
Pont des Arts by Kertész,1929.
The Place de la Concorde, Paris, 1927. 

By 1927 Kertesz’s scenes of the streets of Paris were beginning to attract a great deal of attention, and he had his first show at an avant-garde gallery.

Everything is a subject. Every subject has a rhythm. To feel it is the raison detre. The photograph is a fixed moment of such a raison detre, which lives on in itself.
-Andre Kertesz
.


                                    André Kertész | Washington Square, New York, 1954
 
Andre Kertesz, known for his comprehensive revision of Washington Square Park and his obscure nudes of the 1930s. Kertesz was a still but vital influence on the approaching of age of photojournalism and the art of photography. For more than seventy years, his clever and insightful vision helped to define a medium in its early stages. Though he spent most of his life in the United States, his European modernist awareness is what made him eminent, and that is what he is remembered for in the present day.

"My wife and I found the apartment, which I still live in [Kertész passed away in 1985], in 1952. I take many pictures from my balcony. It looks down onto Washington Square."

-André Kertész, Kertész on Kertész



                                                         Chairs of Paris, 1927/1980.

Le Temps Menaçant (Threatening Weather) René Magritte © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, 
London 2004

National Galleries of Scotland
                                  
"Technique isn't important. Technique is in the blood. Events and mood are more important than good light and the happening is what is important."

- André Kertész
                                                      The Heron, 1969 © André Kertész


 René Magritte, Self-Portrait, 1936. 











Thomas Eakins, 1844-1916




Self portrait, Thomas Eakins, 1904.
National Academy of Design, New York. 

After studying in Europe for nearly four years, the twenty-six-year-old Thomas Eakins returned to Philadelphia, his birthplace, in 1870, where he spent the rest of his life depicting the realities of his milieu with great force and beauty.
An uncompromising realism characterizes Thomas Eakins's philosophy of work and life. His rejection of conventional ideas about artistic training (for instance, he required all his students - female, as well as male - to draw from the nude) led, in part, to his forced resignation as director of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1886. So, too, he rejected traditional ideas of beauty in his honest and revealing portraits. Not surprisingly, these essentially private portrayals were unpopular during Eakins's day.

Thomas Eakins
American, 1844-1916
Portrait of Mary Adeline Williams, 1899

Mary Adeline Williams, or Addie, was a long-time family friend who supported herself as a seamstress
and, for a period, even lived in Eakins's household. With a remarkable depth of emotion and characterization, Eakins used a dark background and severe dress and coiffure to throw into relief Addie's plain features. Her erect posture, pursed lips, and furrowed brow and softened by the three-quarter pose that casts her left side in shadow, while the light that illuminates her right side reveals the quiet resignation and sincerity of this intimate friend. Like Addie, most Eakins's subjects were friends, relatives, or personal acquaintances - natives of Philadelphia, where the artist spent almost his entire life.

The Champion Single Sculls (Max Schmitt in a Single Scull), 1871Thomas Eakins. MET
Dedicated to an active outdoor life as well as art, Eakins painted many studies of sportsmen on his return to the US in 1870, after three years of study in France and a visit to Spain. In his native Philadelphia, where rowing on the Schuylkill River was a favorite activity, the artist became a member of an exclusive rowing club and painted a number of river scenes set north of the Falls of Schuylkill Bridge , where there was a wide, smooth stretch of water.

This painting, The Champion Single Sculls, Eakins's first outdoor painting executed in the US, has a precision of detail and atmosphere unchallenged in America naturalistic painting at this time and reflects his European training in Realist painting sty;es. Set during a late summer afternoon, the work reveals tranquil, almost melancholy quality as the principal figure - rows across the broad passage of water before the distant Girard Avenue Bridge. Eakins himself is depicted in the red boat in the distance. Part of the artist's effect is achieved through his powerful colour control, revealed by by sky blues and pearly clouds above the orange and terracotta shades of the trees, complementing the statuesque rower, who pauses momentarily in the midst of his effort. 









The Renaissance is one of the most beautiful periods in the history of humanity. It was a time when mankind was rejoiced and reborn after a long domination of the church to a new life full of pleasure and bright fulfillments.

The early fifteenth century state produced official definitions of the roles of men and women based on their gender and elite status. The government and political institutes “gave official standing to the variations and nuances of womanhood by vocation, age, marital status and social class” (Stanley Chojnacki 84). The image of a woman was very ambiguous, and this ambiguity of a woman’s nature reflected her status in early modern Europe. The understanding of the role of women was ambivalent: on the one hand, in a context of common cultural values, a woman was a carrier of negative qualities, representing a negative pole of valuable hierarchy of the Christian world, combining a source of disasters for the man and a shelter of devil forces. On the other hand, a woman was dependent on man and was immured in the household serving him as a “looking-glass” for centuries. More positively, a woman was seen as an assistant to a man who would carry the functions of a mother, good housekeeper, and a wife; or as Jones stated in The Mirror, the Distaff, the Pen “the ideal woman was represented as a complement to the kind of man she affirmed” (12). Furthermore, some women preferred to keep themselves for service to God, remaining a virgin.

Women were withdrawn from the world and their primary focus was on serving their husbands and family. They all shared the common problem of living in a society dominated and controlled by men. Therefore, official ideology tried to resolve the misbalance that existed between a man and a woman by developing special roles and also by creating special stereotypes of values. The specifically feminine qualities were seen in virtues such as chastity, piety, obedience, and silence. Hence, this society was especially hostile to women writers “for a woman’s silence was interpreted as a manifestation of her chastity, whereas eloquence was equated with promiscuity” (Judith C. Brown and Robert C. Davis 486).

Another point that could be made is the focus on advocating for freedom of mind that allowed women to develop their talents and creativity. Freedom was considered one of the necessary and natural human rights. However, this society put limits on education for women. The main purpose of any education is to achieve its goal of freeing the mind through many disciplines. Additionally, education transcends skills and knowledge training and liberates women to be free, while at the same time, freeing them from evil and non-values.

The humanism derived from the humanities became the essence and maintenance of the Renaissance. The development of ideas of humanism and education rendered influence on a change of representations regarding social roles of the man and the woman in society. Despite such a misbalance between genders some women did become famous in history. They became known for their wisdom and original thoughts, the works of Elizabeth I, queen of England, is an example. In essence, women of the Renaissance were not only housekeepers and loyal wives but also creators of cultural values.

Wednesday, 28 August 2013

Images of the East in Renaissance Art

Introduction


The Renaissance, which most scholars agree links the Middle Ages to the Modern World, included a dramatic shift in thought and culture in Europe. It was a period of new ideas, a revisiting of classical thought, and an effort to bridge ancient concepts with the modern world. French historian Jules Michelet described the Renaissance as a movement that witnessed “the discovery of the world and the discovery of man.”1    For the purpose of this paper, I will focus on the Renaissance as a discovery of the world and increasing European interactions with the Middle East.
European Renaissance art reflects the fact that Europe was engaging heavily in trade with the Middle East during the Renaissance and constantly receiving their ideas as well as goods is certainly reflected in European Renaissance art. The significance of Eastern imagery in Western art can offer key insights into the Western perspective toward the study of the East as a whole, which some have described as Orientalism.2    Specifically, this imagery in Renaissance art serves as an ongoing basis for debate among history and art scholars, as they continue to analyze the complicated relationships between Europe and the Middle East in an increasingly globalized world.
During the Renaissance, Europeans saw themselves as being in the center of the universe – quite literally, according to the geocentric model. In many instances, Europeans believed themselves to be superior to people of other nations. Because of this, it is ironic that Europeans relied on Middle Eastern goods and trade as symbols of wealth and opulence. One of the ways that powerful Europeans expressed their power was by commissioning paintings and portraits that included Middle Eastern and other exotic images and motifs. Even as Europe saw itself as a self- sufficient and dominant force, it relied on so-called inferior countries for its true expression of power. I will begin by detailing the existing debate on the topic of Orientalism, and then providing background information about the Renaissance before specifically analyzing where and how these two topics intersect.
The Orientalism Debate
The word Orientalism originally referred to “the study of the languages, literature, religions, thought, arts, and social life of the East in order to make them available to the West.”3 In 1978, scholar Edward Said released a book called Orientalism that changed the meaning of this word. Said’s main point was that Orientalism had in itself become a field of thought that was
        
 
1 Jerry Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar: From the Silk Road to Michelangelo (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2005). 2 John M. MacKenzie, Orientalism: History, Theory, and the Arts (New York: Manchester University Press, 1995). 3 Ibid., xii.
   
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inherently biased. He noted that Orientalism involved seeing the East through a Western viewpoint, which often resulted in stereotypical portrayals rather than genuine reflections of Eastern culture. His has become the modern definition of Orientalism – a term that now has negative connotations - and it has formed a basis for heated debate among scholars in the past thirty or so years.
Many followers agree with Said, and lament the Western bias that often exists in analysis of Eastern cultures, the Middle East in particular. Others note that Said’s theory was an attack on Western thought, and make the case that Said “occidentalized the West, by ‘essentialising’ - describing by means of essences or stereotypes - the characteristics of European powers no less than they ‘essentialised’ the East.”4 John MacKenzie, a respectful Said skeptic and leader in this area of study, notes that “in this field perhaps more than any other, a particular selection of paintings, or a specific set of quotations can be used to prove anything.” He also points out that some of Said’s devotees have produced work supporting Said’s thesis that is “both subtle and crude, some of which the master might [have] wish[ed] to disown.”5 Some followers, such as Chandreyee Niyogi, even dedicated their books to Said. Though mostly supportive of Said’s work, Niyogi points out an irony in the debate – Said had wished to bridge the gap between Eastern and Western thought, but instead, Said acknowledged that in many ways, he widened the gap.6    This is because scholars are now engaged in a complex argument regarding how the East should be viewed as a whole; instead of working together to form a common basis of thought, many Eastern and Western scholars are instead disagreeing on what constitutes a respectful view of the East.
While the finer points of this debate are lengthy and complex, suffice it to say that Edward Said started a debate in 1978 that continues in literature and classrooms all over the U.S., Europe, and the East. It is unlikely that this debate about what Orientalism means and what affects it has on academia will be resolved anytime soon, but it is an increasingly meaningful discussion as the Western and Eastern worlds work more closely together than ever before.
Renaissance Overview
It has been said that “if there is one movement at which most people define the birth of modern European civilization, it is surely the period between 1400 and 1600 known as the Renaissance.”7Although the term Renaissance was not used until the 19th century, Europeans certainly acknowledged the period as a time of rediscovery, rebirth, and creation while it was occurring.8    There are several reasons why the Renaissance began where and when it did. First, the classical civilization of Rome certainly influenced Renaissance artists, and “a growing sense of the past prompted the study of [Roman] remains.”9 Additionally, northern Italy was incredibly wealthy due to flourishing Mediterranean trade in ports like Genoa and Venice. Florence and Milan were also vital centers of manufacturing and distribution for the whole of Europe as well. This wealth meant that there were a large amount of benefactors eager to employ Italian artists, the most
   
4 Ibid., 5. 5 Ibid., 5. 6 Chandreyee Niyogi, Reorienting Orientalism (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2006). 7 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 21. 8 C.F. Black et al., Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance (Oxfordshire: Prentice Hall General Reference 1993). 9 Black, Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance, 21.
   
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famous example being the Medici family in Florence. Furthermore, institutions like the Roman Catholic Church often commissioned expensive and intricate works by artists and architects.10 Finally, Italy’s city-state structure at this time meant that the country shared many attributes with ancient Greek and Roman society. Italians had civic pride and a love of their home cities, and acknowledged and appreciated their heritage and traditions. Because of its location, trade, and traditions, Italy in the 1400s was the prime location and time for a shift in thought and culture.
Once Italian artists began to experience a shift in their outlook and thought, the rest of the European world followed suit. With an increased number of foreigners traveling through Europe, as well as the invention of the printing press, the Renaissance movement quickly spread to other countries. Renaissance themes included the rediscovery of antiquity and classical studies, a renewed interest in the individual and humanism, a curiosity for science, mathematics, anatomy, and nature, and a fascination with Eastern goods, people, and society.
In 1482, Ptolemy’s Geography was published. This world map detailed over 8,000 places, and popularized latitude and longitude as a way to lay out the grid of the Earth. Ptolemy centered his world around Constantinople, Alexandria, and Baghdad. This shows that although Europeans considered themselves the most dominant people in the world, they recognized that power lay in the East. As mapmaking improved and each subsequent map became more accurate, trade and exploration flourished. This expanded trade allowed for an increased presence of foreign goods, people, and ideas in Renaissance Europe, thus fueling the frequency of Eastern themes seen in Renaissance art.
Without wealthy patrons backing the artist community during the Renaissance, we might not see such obvious and frequent images of the Middle East in famous works. Vasari’s Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects details more about the lives of specific Renaissance artists and works. Vasari elevated artists to a high status, portraying them as noble and selective creators rather than as dirty workers.11 Because artists were increasingly seen as elite, they began conversing and networking with the powerful and the wealthy. Through these connections, they received commissions of work from prestigious leaders, who often requested Middle Eastern themes in their portraits to show opulence and wealth. If artists like Michelangelo and da Vinci were not backed by wealthy patrons and encouraged to explore exotic themes, the Renaissance may have looked very different.
Trade and Exploration: Growing Curiosity During the Renaissance
One historian writes that “To fully evaluate the artistic achievements of the Renaissance, it is necessary to acknowledge that the art that emerged from it was deeply imbued with the worlds of trade and politics, both of the east and of the west.”12 Around the year 1500, European countries were actively engaged in trade all over the world. Black notes that the “endless curiosity that characterizes ‘Renaissance man’ can be seen as the mainspring of the exploring impulse that was to take European culture across the world.”13 Groups like the Dutch East India Company and the
  0 Black, Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance, 22. 11 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 124 12 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 153. 13 Black, Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance, 109.
   
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British East India Company made it their business to travel to new and exotic lands, including the Middle East, in search of wealth and luxury goods to introduce into the European market.
However, trade is never a one-way process; as European culture traveled East, Eastern ideas and imagery traveled West. The Renaissance period was the so-called Golden Age of exploration, when famous figures like Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama, and Christopher Columbus set sail. Exotic goods like musk, ginger, Arabian horses, and Chinese porcelain indicated that Eastern countries could make powerful trading allies. Brotton indicates that these goods and luxury items made a powerful impression on artists and architects like Masaccio, Filarete, and Mantenga, who made an effort to incorporate images of exotic animals, Islamic script, and Eastern materials like silk and woven carpets into their works.14
Traditionally, scholars have believed that the Renaissance involved a return to classical Roman and Greek ways of thinking, and that Renaissance artists incorporated Eastern ideas as a curiosity when it suited them or their benefactors. Brotton argues that this traditional view simply is not true. Instead, he says that Eastern countries played an active role in shaping the course of the Renaissance. I believe that both the traditional view and Brotton are partially right. While Brotton’s argument that the Middle East was a critical force in the European world is certainly valid, I believe that Renaissance artists liked to have fun with their themes. They probably found it interesting to scatter exotic imagery throughout traditional works, and most likely found amusement in the fact that their wealthy patrons placed so much emphasis on the inclusion of exotic goods and symbols in commissioned works.
Despite the Inquisition’s widespread emphasis of traditional European customs and values, many people remained actively curious about the unknown. One such individual was the French writer Pierre Belon, who headed east in search of wonders in the mid-16th century. Belon wrote books about his accounts, popularizing his journeys and prompting other explorers to venture East as well, also writing accounts of their trips. These tours became like Oriental sight-seeing for adventurous Europeans. The wealthier the traveler, the better they were received by what could otherwise be hostile groups of people. In this way, high-ranking travelers like Jean Palerne, who went abroad in 1581, could attest to Eastern atrocities and brutalities without ever truly experiencing them. This kind of morbid curiosity contributed to the sense of wonderment about these exotic people15. Additionally, possessing Eastern goods and wealth became seen as a status symbol; Europeans began to define themselves by “purchasing and emulating the opulence and cultured sophistication” of Eastern lands.16
As we must now reexamine our traditional beliefs about the Renaissance, so Renaissance artists too had to reexamine their views of the world. In sculpting and painting the perfect human specimens, artists generally created European figures. Michelangelo’s David, for example, looks very European in physical traits and stature. The idea of perfection seemed synonymous with European culture. This raises some important questions: why would a group of countries who were
14 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 2. 15 R.J.W. Evans and Alexander Marr, Curiosity and Wonder from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 2006). 16 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 1.
   
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so prosperous and self-sufficient demand faraway goods from Eastern lands? Why were other countries so fascinating when they were so “obviously” inferior? These are questions that many Europeans tried to avoid. Renaissance artists, however, seem to have picked up on this contradiction, displaying their understanding in interesting ways.
European Impressions of the Middle East
In the late eleventh and twelfth centuries, scholars struggled with attempting to understand Islam more accurately. This was also the period during which the Crusades were active. One scholar writes that, during this time, “everyone in the West had some picture of what Islam meant...but it was not knowledge, and its details were only accidentally true.”17 For the most part, Islam was perceived as a dangerous force that had usurped lands in which Christianity had previously dominated, “and which continued to constitute a serious threat to Christendom.”18 Fortunately, no one regards Islam as such today.19
Historian Zachary Lockman proposes that Islam served as a mirror for Europeans; it was a culture that they could compare themselves to in order to feel better. Much like how modern Americans watch reality television for the comforting notion that at least they are better than these classless, obscene characters, Europeans in the twelfth and thirteenth century looked to Islam as an inferior ideology that bolstered their self-confidence. Lockman indicates that “it was in part by differentiating themselves from Islam...that European Christians, and later their nominally secular descendants, defined their own identity20.” Another scholar agrees, noting that the Middle East became something of a laboratory for information gathering. Additionally, the exploration of the Middle East raised questions about history, human origins, and the definition of human nature itself, as Europeans realized more and more that what they considered normal and civilized – a belief in Jesus as God, in city living as a sign of wealth, and proper manners and civility - often conflicted with the ideas of Middle Eastern culture.21
Examples of Middle Eastern Imagery in Renaissance Art
Many Renaissance artists incorporated imagery of the Middle East into their work in quite interesting ways, as the notion of Islam as a serious threat faded somewhat during the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries.22 Scholars argue that the Renaissance is what allowed for a de- emphasis on Christian thinking, and a weakening of the church. Therefore, the Renaissance as a movement allowed for freer expression and permitted individual artists to incorporate Middle Eastern imagery into their works. Anna Contadini, a scholar at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, points out that Middle Eastern elements were incorporated into Renaissance works for four main reasons. The first was to show exotic goods as valuable objects that provide opportunities for wealth through trade. The second reason was to denote power and status to the patron or subject of a portrait. The third reason for including Middle
17Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East, (London: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 36. 18 Ibid., 37. 19 Yes, that was a joke. 20 Ibid., 37.
21 Ziauddin Sardar, Orientalism (Philadelphia: Open University Press 1999). 22 Lockman, Contenting visions of the Middle East, 39.
   
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Eastern motifs was to creatively experiment with new themes and ideas. Lastly, artists could show Islamic and Middle Eastern ideas as prototypes for imitation and learning. For simplicity’s sake in future reference, I will name these four motivations for including Middle Eastern imagery Prospects, Prestige, Playfulness, and Prototypes.
One interesting study is the imagery of Islamic and Middle Eastern textiles in Renaissance art. Europeans, especially Italians, valued trade with the Middle East, because it resulted in a wealth of luxurious cloth to be used in Italian clothing for those who could afford it. Walking down the street, Italians could distinguish between basic Italian textiles and Middle Eastern ones, and the latter evoked a sense of respect and admiration of the wearer. One early example of Middle Eastern textiles in Renaissance art is Cimabue’s paintings from the thirteenth century. Cimabue’s Madonna and Child with Angels incorporated imagery of Islamic textiles with Arabic inscriptions. In the fourteenth century, Giotto’s frescoes include textiles with Kufic-like scripts. Kufic was an early calligraphic form of Arab writing.23 In the fifteenth century, Frá Angelico’s Madonna and Child incorporates Arabic inscriptions and cloth – a stunning combination of Christian icons surrounded by Islamic influence. These works incorporate the concepts of Prestige and Playfulness. The textiles denote power and sovereignty, but at the same time, we can imagine that Renaissance artists noted the irony of using Islamic motifs to depict Christian figures. Contadini notes that as the Italian textile industry grew in the fifteenth century, the presence of Oriental textiles in paintings decreased; they are seen only in the borders of clothing made of otherwise Italian cloth, such as in Botticelli’s “Fortitude” in 1470.24
Middle Eastern trade also brought coveted and prestigious Oriental carpets to Europe. These carpets were typical of Anatolian Turkish workshops, and were often used in paintings to denote status or even holiness at the feet of the Madonna or Saints25. This idea of Islam and
Middle Eastern motifs as a sign of holiness is ironic, since the Western idea of holiness was fundamentally tied to a belief in Jesus Christ as the son of God and part of the Holy Trinity – ideas which Islam rejected altogether. As the carpets became more common, the wealthy bought them more frequently for use as interior decoration, and they were increasingly seen in portraits of nobility to signify authority and power.
Hans Holbein’s The Ambassadors, at left, includes several examples of Middle Eastern imagery. The carpet on the table and lush green backdrop are examples of the aforementioned    Turkish    imports,    signifying    the importance of the subjects in the painting. The inclusion
23 Anna Contadini, Islam and the Italian Renaissance: Artistic Contacts – Current Scholarship and Future Tasks (London: Warburg Institute, 1999). 24 Ibid., 5. 25 Ibid., 6.
   
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of furs is meant to be a sign of opulence gained from international trade.26    The terrestrial and celestial globes and navigation tools reference the emphasis on exploration and trade during the Renaissance. While this painting has many interpretations and much symbology, one clear message of Holbein’s portrait is that exploration very often leads to opulence and wealth – it invokes the themes of Prospects and Prestige.
Another fascinating example is Benozzo Gozzoli’s The Journey of the Magi, above, which can be interpreted appears to be a celebration of the Medici’s role in uniting the Eastern and Western churches.27 Gozzoli painted John VIII, Joseph II, and Lorenzo de’Medici as the three Magi. The Medici family negotiated commercial access to Constantinople in 1439, as Lorenzo de’Medici saw this as a critical connection between the East and West. Unfortunately, the general population of Constantinople rejected the agreement, and the Italian state refused to provide military assistance to the Byzantines in their fight against the Ottomans. In 1453, the agreement ended.28 Though the contract dissolved, the painting remains an important source of Middle Eastern ideas incorporated into Italian artwork. It shows the Prestige associated with embarking on a grand journey to the East, and depicts the travelers as wealthy explorers and diplomats forming critical connections between Europe and the Eastern world.
Another interesting work is Costanzo da Ferrara’s Seated Scribe, which was painted during Costanzo’s trip to Istanbul in the 1470s. This portrait is painted in the traditional Ottoman and Persian style of portraiture29. Costanzo’s subject is a young scribe, seated and writing in Arabic. The scribe wears a turban, traditional Ottoman dress with a rich pattern and velvet sleeves, and a golden earring. The 15th-century Persian painter Bihzad created a response to this work, called Portrait of a Painter in Turkish Costume. Interestingly, Bihzad changes the scribe into a painter who is shown working on a painting quite similar to Costanzo’s. Brotton notes that “each artist draws on the aesthetic innovations of the other, making it impossible to say which painting is definably ‘western’ or ‘eastern.”30 While Italy and Turkey exchanged money and goods, they also exchanged artistic ideas and skills. Brotton notes that to ignore the fact that Renaissance art owes a debt to Islamic techniques is to only tell one side of the Renaissance story. In this way, the painting evokes the idea of Prototypes, showing that the exchange of ideas and thought is beneficial. Costanzo shows a respectful admiration for Islamic study and the tradition of discipline and learning in Middle Eastern culture.
Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait (1434), on the following page, is a classic portrayal of the opulence of exotic goods. The painting shows Giovanni di Arrigo Arnolfini, a wealthy and
 
26 Contadini, Islam and the Italian Renaissance, 9. 27 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 101. 28 Ibid., 102. 29 Brotton, The Renaissance Bazaar, 116.
30 Ibid., 138.    
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powerful Italian merchant, with his wife, Giovanna (who came from wealth herself). The couple stands in a room overflowing with symbols of their wealth: baltic furs, Spanish oranges, Venetian glasswork, Ottoman carpets, and German woodwork.31 It was said of the city of Bruges, where the couple lived, that “anyone who has money and wishes to spend it will find in this town everything that the whole world produces.”32 This painting shows the themes of Prospects and Prestige – this couple delights in their Middle Eastern goods, even though they are part of a European society that thinks of Middle Easterners as barbarian or inferior. The mirror in the back of the painting also shows the growing field of optics. Interestingly, van Eyck has painted himself on this mirror, placing his likeness directly in the center of his painting. Brotton notes that this was a daring and groundbreaking move – van Eyck stressed the artist’s importance alongside that of the patron or sitter.33    This was an important trend throughout the Renaissance – even as countries and continents became more interconnected, there was still a movement toward individual thought and the importance of the self, potentially growing Europe’s sense of superiority.
Gentile Bellini’s Venitian Embassy in the East shows Venetians and Turks engaging in dialogue. Venice’s Jewish population served as an important link to the Mediterranean trading business, and merchants from the Ottoman Empire often visited Venice to engage in contracts and to warehouse items. Black notes that “although Christians and Turks were often involved in open conflict, the channels of communication through diplomacy and trade remained open.”34 In this painting, it is apparent that the Venetian and Turkish merchants set aside their cultural and religious differences in acknowledgement that they and their people shared similar goals of trade – a clear example of Prototype, in which the exchange of ideas is beneficial.
Finally, Leonardo da Vinci’s ceiling frescoes in the Sals delle Asse in Milan show crosses side-by-side with eight-pointed stars and looped knots, traditional symbols of the Islam faith. Albrecht Durer imitated these themes. Contadini explains that this is an example of Playfulness, because da Vinci incorporated unorthodox symbology into a traditionally sacred space for apparently no other reason other than
the fact that he could.35
One unifying theme throughout these examples Middle Eastern imagery in Renaissance art is that as Eastern goods showed status, so did custom paintings and works that incorporated Eastern ideas. This is a bit humorous in the sense that Europeans at this time generally considered themselves superior to their Middle Eastern counterparts; yet, when they wanted to convey their wealth, power, and authority, one common request was for the artist to paint the patron
 
31 Ibid., 135. 32 Ibid., 136. 33 Ibid., 137. 34 Black, Cultural Atlas of the Renaissance, 135. 35 Contadini, Islam and the Italian Renaissance, 9.
   
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surrounded by Middle Eastern goods. It is ironic to think that Western rulers relied on dominance in Middle Eastern trade as a symbol of power.
Additional Thoughts
After exploring how Renaissance artists incorporated Middle Eastern and Oriental ideas into paintings as a way to show Prospects, Prestige, Playfulness, and Prototypes, we must consider an important question: why did some artists choose to not incorporate images of the exotic when it seems to be so popular and lucrative? Did images of the East inherently contradict the idea of the Renaissance as a return to more classical/traditional works? It is my opinion that the Renaissance is often described using two conflicting characteristics: the movement was a return to classical thought as well as a time for exploration of new ideas and cultures. In this way, we are able to see such interesting and unique juxtapositions like the Virgin Mary adorned with Islamic calligraphy. Rather than seeing this as confusing or nonsensical, we can instead view these images as a glimpse into the Western mindset regarding the Middle East during the Renaissance. The artists who did not incorporate these themes may simply not have been backed by wealthy patrons, may not have had a strong preference for new or exotic ideas over traditional imagery, or may not have believed that Middle Eastern imagery was necessary for creative thinking and portraying the world around them.
Conclusion
It has been said that “the history of the Arabs has been written in Europe chiefly by historians who knew no Arabic, or by Arabists who knew no history.”36 While this is a sharp comment, it is relevant to the analysis of Middle Eastern imagery in Renaissance art. As we have examined, much of what Europeans during the Renaissance knew about places like Egypt or the Ottoman Empire was from stories of others who had visited, from viewing other artists’ work on the subject, or from hear-say by way of sailors and merchants. Very few artists who incorporated Middle Eastern ideas and themes into their Renaissance works had actually been to these places or conducted detailed studies of the cultures and traditions of the Middle East. In other words, their knowledge of Middle Eastern culture was based on embellished stories and superficial interactions with exotic goods rather than an in-depth understanding of Middle Eastern thought.
On one hand, we can argue that this limited the artists’ ability to accurately and respectfully depict Islamic themes, and that by throwing calligraphy and Middle Eastern goods into paintings, they cheapened the image of the East. On the other hand, we can note that the Renaissance artists were not limited by a need to understand everything about Islam – instead, they experimented with Middle Eastern imagery in interesting and fun ways that provide scholars today with a quite intriguing topic to study.
In this way, it can be argued that Said’s argument was right – Orientalist imagery became more and more stereotypical throughout centuries of artistry, culminating in the work of 19th century artists, which some feel border on racist. Linda Nochlin, a leading critic of Orientalist art, argues that most exotic imagery is incredibly stereotypical and shows “a childlike indifference to the need to preserve culture and tradition.” She indicates that artists used Orientalism as an area
   36 Denis Sinor, Orientalism & History (Ontario: Indiana University Press, 1970).
   
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in which to explore fantasy and imagination.37 She sees this as a negative aspect rather than liberating idea. For better or worse, Middle Eastern imagery in the Renaissance had a direct effect on how the Middle East was viewed by Europeans for centuries after it had been created.
In sum, we can say with confidence that there is an element of humor in Europeans’ elevation of Middle Eastern goods as a status symbol. Much like how a Swiss watch or Egyptian cotton sheets carry an element of sophistication and refinement today, Middle Eastern produce, textiles, and spices allowed the owner to feel like they had conquered a small part of the world for their own pleasure. We may conclude that the man who treasures his German-made BMW is not inherently more special than any other person – it is the possession that differentiates him. Similarly, we can speculate that Europe in itself was not the epitome of perfection during the Renaissance. Europeans relied heavily on the support and trade of other countries, particularly in the Ottoman Empire and North African regions, to define their high status and provide them with the luxuries they coveted. 37 A.L. Macfie, Orientalism (London: Longman, 2002).    
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